Volume 13, Issue 4 (Journal of Control, V.13, N.4 Winter 2020)                   JoC 2020, 13(4): 1-14 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hassanzade M, Rahmani Z. Improving the Energy Management of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle by Dynamic Programming Using Electro-Thermal Model of Battery. JoC. 2020; 13 (4) :1-14
URL: http://joc.kntu.ac.ir/article-1-570-en.html
1- University
Abstract:   (3358 Views)
In this paper, an offline energy management system (EMS) is proposed for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The proper energy management system is necessary for dividing torque between electrical motor and Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). The battery is a crucial component of hybrid electric vehicles and affects significantly the cost and the performance of the whole vehicle. The primary factors accelerating battery aging are high temperatures and high states of charge (SOC) of the battery. SOC is the most important state variable in EMS, and usually considered as the only dynamic variable in past researches, but the battery temperature is often considered to be constant for simplicity and the effects of EMS on the temperature variations are neglected. In this paper, first, dynamic programming is applied to a parallel HEV without considering variation of the temperature of the battery. Then, the model of battery is improved by modelling the cooling system to take into account temperature variations and show how neglecting thermal dynamics of the battery in EMS is impractical. Finally, by integrating the battery temperature as a state variable in the optimization problem, a new energy management strategy controlling variations of the battery temperature and SOC is proposed. The simulation results on tested vehicle show that in the proposed method charge and temperature of the battery is controlled so that the proposed EMS method prevents uncontrolled variations of the battery temperature and reduces the degradation rate of it.
Full-Text [PDF 1100 kb]   (1325 Downloads)    
Type of Article: Research paper | Subject: Special
Received: 2018/03/18 | Accepted: 2018/07/22 | Published: 2020/01/30

1. [1] L. Guzzella and A. Sciarretta, Vehicle Propulsion Systems, Introduction to Modeling and Optimization, Springer, 2013. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-35913-2]
2. [2] A. A. Malikopoulos, "Supervisory Power Management Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: A Survey," IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1869-1885, 2014. [DOI:10.1109/TITS.2014.2309674]
3. [3] M. P. O'Keefe and T. Markel, "Dynamic Programming Applied to Investigate Energy Management Strategies for a Plug-in HEV," National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2006.
4. [4] K. Namwook, C. Sukwonand P. Huei, "Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle," IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 19, no. 5,pp. 1279-1287, 2011. [DOI:10.1109/TCST.2010.2061232]
5. [5] L. Serrao et al., "Open Issues in Supervisory Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: A Unified Approach Using Optimal Control Methods," Oil & Gas Science and Technology-Revue d'IFP Energies nouvelles, vol. 68, no. 1,pp. 23-33, 2013. [DOI:10.2516/ogst/2012080]
6. [6] G. Paganelli et al.,"Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Powertrains," in IEEE 55th Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC Spring 2002.
7. [7] L. Serrao et al., "Optimal Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Including Battery Aging," in American Control Conference (ACC), IEEE 2011. [DOI:10.1109/ACC.2011.5991576]
8. [8] C. H.Zheng et al., "TheEffect of Battery Temperature on Total Fuel Consumption of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,vol. 38, no. 13, pp. 5192-5200, 2013. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.02.048]
9. [9] D.E. Kirk, Optimal Control Theory: An Introduction, Courier Corporation,2012
10. [10] X. Lin et al., "Online Parameterization of Lumped Thermal Dynamics in Cylindrical Lithium Ion Batteries for CoreTemperature Estimation and Health Monitoring," IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1745-1755, 2013. [DOI:10.1109/TCST.2012.2217143]
11. [11] Y. Hu et al., "Electro-Thermal Battery Model Identification for Automotive Applications," Journal of Power Sources, vol. 196, no. 1, pp. 449-457, 2011. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.06.037]
12. [12] A. Cordoba-Arenas, S. Onori and G. Rizzoni, "A Control-Oriented Lithium-ion Battery Pack Model for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Cycle-Life Studies and System Design withConsideration of Health Management," Journal of Power Sources, vol. 279,pp. 791-808, 2015. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.12.048]
13. [13] G.Suri and S. Onori, "A Control-Oriented Cycle-Life Model for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Lithium-ion Batteries," Energy, vol. 96,pp. 644-653,2016. [DOI:10.1016/j.energy.2015.11.075]
14. [14] A. Cordoba-Arenas et al., "Capacity and Power Fade Cycle-Life Model for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Lithium-ion Battery Cells Containing Blended Spinel and Layered-Oxide Positive Electrodes," Journal of Power Sources, vol. 278,pp. 473-483,2015. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.12.047]
15. [15] R.Mahamudand C. Park, "Reciprocating Air Flow for Li-ion Battery Thermal Management to Improve Temperature Uniformity," Journal of Power Sources, vol. 196, no. 13,pp. 5685-5696, 2011. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.02.076]
16. [16] H.Park, , "A Design of Air Flow Configuration for Cooling Lithium-ion Battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles," Journal Of Power Sources, vol. 239(Supplement C), pp. 30-36,2013. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.03.102]
17. [17] D. Di Domenico, E. Prada and Y. Creff, "An Adaptive Strategy for Li-ion Battery Internal State Estimation," Control Engineering Practice, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1851-1859, 2013. [DOI:10.1016/j.conengprac.2013.08.004]
18. [18] J. Kalawoun et al., "From a Novel Classification of the Battery State of Charge Estimators Toward a Conception of an Ideal One," Journal of Power Sources, vol. 279,pp. 694-706,2015. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.038]
19. [19] J. Sun et al., "LiFePO4 Optimal Operation Temperature Range Analysis for EV/HEV," International Conference on Life System Modeling and Simulation and International Conference on Intelligent Computing for Sustainable Energy and Environment, pp. 476-485, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-662-45286-8_50]
20. [20] L. Serrao et al., Optimal Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Including Battery Aging. In: Proceedings Of The IEEE American Control Conference (ACC), San Francisco, Ca, Jun 29-Jul 1, 2011. [DOI:10.1109/ACC.2011.5991576]
21. [21] S. Ebbesen, P. Elbert, and L. Guzzella, "Battery State-of-Health Perceptive Energy Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 2893-2900, Sep., 2012. [DOI:10.1109/TVT.2012.2203836]
22. [22] T. M. Padovani et al., "Optimal Energy Management Strategy Including Battery Health Through Thermal Management for Hybrid Vehicles," IFAC Proceedings Volumes, vol. 46, no. 21, pp. 384-389, 2013. [DOI:10.3182/20130904-4-JP-2042.00137]
23. [23] L. Tang, G. Rizzoni, and S. Onori, "Energy Management Strategy for HEVs Including Battery Life Optimization," IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, vol. 1, no. 3, October 2016. [DOI:10.1109/TTE.2015.2471180]
24. [24] T. Yuksel et al., "Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle LiFePO4 Battery Life Implications of Thermal Management, Driving Conditions, and Regional Climate." Journal of Power Sources, vol. 338, pp. 49-64, 2017. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.10.104]
25. [25] M. Jafari et al., "Electric Vehicle Battery Cycle Aging Evaluation in Real-World Daily Driving and Vehicle-To-Grid Services." IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, vol. 4, no .1, pp. 122-134, 2018. [DOI:10.1109/TTE.2017.2764320]
26. [26] T. Nüesch et al., "Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for the Control of Real Driving NOx Emissions of a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle," Energies, vol. 7, no. 5,pp. 3148-3178, 2014. [DOI:10.3390/en7053148]
27. [27] A. Pesaran, M. Keyser and S. Burch,"An Approach for Designing Thermal Management Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Battery Packs," National Renewable EnergyLaboratory, Golden, CO (US), 1999.
28. [28] D. Bernardi, E. Pawlikowski and J. Newman, "A General Energy Balance for Battery Systems," Journal Of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 5-12, 1985. [DOI:10.1149/1.2113792]
29. [29] K. B. Wipke et al., "ADVISOR 2.1: A User-Friendly Advanced Powertrain Simulation Using a Combined Backward/Forward Approach." IEEE transactions on vehicular technology, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1751-1761, 1999. [DOI:10.1109/25.806767]
30. [30] T. Markel et al., " ADVISOR: a Systems Analysis Tool for Advanced Vehicle Modeling." Journal of power sources, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 255-266, 2002. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-7753(02)00189-1]
31. [31] T. Barlow et al., "A Reference Book of Driving Cycles for Use in The Measurement of Road Vehicle Emissions," TRL Published Project Report, 2009.
32. [32] A.Sciarrettaand L. Guzzella, "Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles," Control systems, IEEE,vol. 27, no. 2,pp. 60-70, 2007. [DOI:10.1109/MCS.2007.338280]
33. [33] R.E.Bellman and S.E. Dreyfus, Applied Dynamic Programming, Princeton University Press, 2015.
34. [34] D. P. Bertsekas, Dynamic Programming and Optimal Control. vol. 1, Belmont, MA: Athena scientific, 1995.
35. [35] X. Wang et al., "Application Study on the Dynamic ProgrammingAlgorithm for Energy Management of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles," Energies,vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 3225-3244, 2015. [DOI:10.3390/en8043225]
36. [36] O.Sundstrom and L. Guzzella. "A Generic Dynamic Programming Matlab Function," In 2009 IEEE Control Applications, (CCA) &Intelligent Control, (ISIC), 2009. [DOI:10.1109/CCA.2009.5281131]
37. [37] P. Elbert, S. Ebbesen and L. Guzzella, "Implementation of Dynamic Programming for n-Dimensional Optimal Control Problems With Final State Constraints," IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 924-931, 2017. [DOI:10.1109/TCST.2012.2190935]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Control

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb